, This strong odour can be detected half a mile away by animals, thus luring them. As marked on the map by an upright yellow triangle, the highest point of Papua New Guinea is Mount Wilhelm – at an elevation of 14,793 ft (4,509 m). In the same year, the United States imported 2,000 tonnes, mostly frozen, and the European Community imported 500 tonnes. In translations of Linschoten's writings, the fruit is spelled as duryoen. Durian Papua is on Facebook. Different cultivars may be distinguished to some extent by variations in the fruit shape, such as the shape of the spines. Although the durian is not native to Thailand, Thailand is ranked the world's number one exporter of durian, producing around 700,000 tonnes of durian per year, 400,000 tonnes of which are exported to mainland China and Hong Kong. , The Javanese believe durian to have aphrodisiac qualities, and impose a set of rules on what may or may not be consumed with it or shortly thereafter. These three genera together form a clade that is characterised by highly modified (mono- and polythecate, as opposed to bithecate) anthers.  In Indonesia, Ir Sumeru Ashari, head of Durian Research Centre, Universitas Brawijaya reported spineless durian from Kasembon, Malang. While Wallace cautions that "the smell of the ripe fruit is certainly at first disagreeable", later descriptions by Westerners are more graphic in detail. Being a fruit much loved by a variety of wild beasts, the durian sometimes signifies the long-forgotten animalistic aspect of humans, as in the legend of Orang Mawas, the Malaysian version of Bigfoot, and Orang Pendek, its Sumatran version, both of which have been claimed to feast on durians.  Nevertheless, signs warning people not to linger under durian trees are found in Indonesia. ... as producing a food of the most exquisite flavour it is unsurpassed.[a].  During the early stages of its taxonomical study, there was some confusion between durian and the soursop (Annona muricata), for both of these species had thorny green fruit. In fact, to eat Durians is a new sensation worth a voyage to the East to experience. Moving to Papua New Guinea Get free quotes from professionals for moving to Papua New Guinea. , The durian is commonly known as the "king of fruits", a label that can be attributed to its formidable look and overpowering odour. New Guinea (Tok Pisin: Niugini; Hiri Motu: Niu Gini; Indonesian: Papua, historically Irian) is the world's second-largest island and, with an area of 785,753 km 2 (303,381 sq mi), the largest island in the Southern Hemisphere.Located in Melanesia in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, it is separated by the 150-kilometre (81 nmi; 93 mi) wide Torres Strait from the Australian continent. , Hundreds of phytochemicals responsible for durian flavour and aroma include diverse volatile compounds, such as esters, ketones, alcohols (primarily ethanol), and organosulfur compounds, with various thiols.  Another common variety is "Udang merah", or red shrimp, found in the states of Pahang and Johor. In peninsular Malaysia and Singapore, the season for durians is typically from June to August, coinciding with that of the mangosteen. There are 13 common Malaysian varieties having favourable qualities of colour, texture, odour, taste, high yield, and resistance against various diseases. , The genus Durio is placed by some taxonomists in the family Bombacaceae, or by others in a broadly defined Malvaceae that includes Bombacaceae, and by others in a smaller family of just seven genera Durionaceae.  The fruit of many species has never been collected or properly examined, however, so other species may have edible fruit. Then there is a rich glutinous smoothness in the pulp which nothing else possesses, but which adds to its delicacy. But they are no more African than any other people. It instructs the reader to boil the roots of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis with the roots of Durio zibethinus, Nephelium longan, Nephelium mutabile and Artocarpus integrifolia, and drink the decoction or use it as a poultice.  The degree of ripeness has an effect on the flavour as well. Some individuals are unable to differentiate these smells and find this fruit noxious, whereas others find it pleasant and appealing.  The traditional method to counteract this is to pour water into the empty shell of the fruit after the pulp has been consumed and drink it. The durian symbolised the subjective nature of ugliness and beauty in Hong Kong director Fruit Chan's 2000 film Durian Durian (榴槤飄飄, lau lin piu piu), and was a nickname for the reckless but lovable protagonist of the eponymous Singaporean TV comedy Durian King played by Adrian Pang. Covering about 65% of the land area of the island (288,000 km 2), the forests of New Guinea encompass mountainous and lowland areas of particularly high biodiversity. A common saying is that a durian has eyes, and can see where it is falling, because the fruit allegedly never falls during daylight hours when people may be hurt. 1, a cultivar without the characteristic odour. , Some scientists have hypothesised that the development of monothecate anthers and larger flowers (compared to those of the remaining genera in Durioneae) in the clade consisting of Durio, Boschia, and Cullenia was in conjunction with a transition from beetle pollination to vertebrate pollination.  In the Philippines, the centre of durian production is the Davao Region.  In the 18th century, Johann Anton Weinmann considered the durian to belong to Castaneae as its fruit was similar to the horse chestnut. Since this species is open-pollinated, it shows considerable diversity in fruit colour and odour, size of flesh and seed, and tree phenology. A naturally spineless variety of durian growing wild in Davao, Philippines, was discovered in the 1960s; fruits borne from these seeds also lacked spines.  In Malaysia, a spineless durian clone D172 is registered by Agriculture Department on 17 June 1989. The seeds can also be eaten when cooked. The Kadayawan Festival is an annual celebration featuring the durian in Davao City. , Other comparisons have been made with the civet, sewage, stale vomit, skunk spray and used surgical swabs. Kan Yao is somewhat less common, but prized for its longer window of time when it is both sweet and odourless at the same time. Other island groups were added subsequently. According to Larousse Gastronomique, the durian fruit is ready to eat when its husk begins to crack. A durian that falls off the tree continues to ripen for two to four days, but after five or six days most would consider it overripe and unpalatable, although some Thais proceed from that point to cook it with palm sugar, creating a dessert called durian (or thurian) guan.. A durian falling on a person's head can cause serious injuries because it is heavy, armed with sharp thorns, and can fall from a significant height.  He cited one traveller from 1599:[b] "it is of such an excellent taste that it surpasses in flavour all other fruits of the world, according to those who have tasted it. , Over the centuries, numerous durian cultivars, propagated by vegetative clones, have arisen in Southeast Asia. In Thailand, durian is often eaten fresh with sweet sticky rice, and blocks of durian paste are sold in the markets, though much of the paste is adulterated with pumpkin. Malaysians make both sugared and salted preserves from durian. The unusual flavour and odour of the fruit have prompted many people to express diverse and passionate views ranging from deep appreciation to intense disgust. , By 2007, Thai government scientist Songpol Somsri had crossbred more than ninety varieties of durian to create Chantaburi No. Selected for you by Expat.com The species grows on several small islands off Sumatra in Indonesia, as well as on New Guinea, on small islands north of New Guinea and in the southern Solomon Islands. However, people have died from durian falling on their heads, especially young children.  The fatty acid composition of durian flesh is particularly rich in oleic acid and palmitic acid. The lowest point of Papua New Guinea is the Pacific Ocean (0m). Es durian (durian ice cream) is a popular dessert in Indonesia, sold at street side stall in Indonesian cities, especially in Java. A rich custard highly flavoured with almonds gives the best general idea of it, but there are occasional wafts of flavour that call to mind cream-cheese, onion-sauce, sherry-wine, and other incongruous dishes. Join Facebook to connect with Durian Papua and others you may know. Since PNG is just north of Australia, its durian season most probably follows that of Northern Territories - November to January. Sanguma is a Papua New Guinean word meaning black magic or sorcery. The 6 additional species included in Durio s.l. , Durio sensu lato has 30 recognised species. of the rind, together with the noun-building suffix -an. It is neither acidic nor sweet nor juicy; yet it wants neither of these qualities, for it is in itself perfect. Pregnant women or people with high blood pressure are traditionally advised not to consume durian. Some people regard the durian as having a pleasantly sweet fragrance, whereas others find the aroma overpowering with an unpleasant odour. Among all the cultivars in Thailand, five are currently in large-scale commercial cultivation: Chanee, Mon Thong, Kan Yao, Ruang, and Kradum. Durian Information - A Durian Blog Devoted To "The King of Fruits", =========================================================. 3, develops the odour about three days after the fruit is picked, which enables an odourless transport yet satisfies consumers who prefer the pungent odour.  The Malay name for the soursop is durian Belanda, meaning Dutch durian. The flesh is thick, not solid, yellow coloured, and has a sweet taste. Moving forward The additional funding and expansion of UYEP will ensure the project can open opportunities for up to 15,000 unemployed young people by 2018 to help them find positive long-term employment. For example, some popular clones are Sultan (D24), Kop (D99 Thai: กบ – "frog" Thai pronunciation: [kòp]), Chanee (D123, Thai: ชะนี – "gibbon" Thai pronunciation: [tɕʰániː]), Berserah or Green Durian or Tuan Mek Hijau (D145 Thai: ทุเรียนเขียว – Green Durian Thai pronunciation: [tʰúriːən kʰǐow]), Kan Yao (D158, Thai: ก้านยาว – Long Stem Thai pronunciation: [kâːn jaːw]), Mon Thong (D159, Thai: หมอนทอง – Golden Pillow Thai pronunciation: [mɔ̌ːn tʰɔːŋ]), Kradum Thong (Thai: กระดุมทอง – Golden Button Thai pronunciation: [kràdum tʰɔːŋ]), and with no common name, D169. Login Sign up  Writing in 1856, the British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace provided a much-quoted description of the flavour of the durian: The five cells are silky-white within, and are filled with a mass of firm, cream-coloured pulp, containing about three seeds each. All information is provided on an as-is basis. Some people in southern Thailand prefer their durians relatively young when the clusters of fruit within the shell are still crisp in texture and mild in flavour. Durian was introduced into Australia in the early 1960s and clonal material was first introduced in 1975.  The durian is somewhat similar in appearance to the jackfruit, an unrelated species. In addition, the fruit is highly appetising to diverse animals, including squirrels, mouse deer, pigs, sun bear, orangutan, elephants, and even carnivorous tigers. Sweet-potato farming, Southern Highlands province, Papua New Guinea. It has been planted in the Americas but confined to botanical gardens. ^ The traveller Wallace cites is Linschott (Wallace's spelling for Jan Huyghen van Linschoten), whose name appears repeatedly in Internet searches on durian, with such citations themselves tracing back to Wallace. In Sabah, red durian is fried with onions and chilli and served as a side dish. In 1981, J. R. Croft wrote in his Bombacaceae: In Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea that "a feeling of morbidity" often follows the consumption of alcohol too soon after eating durian. The flesh can be consumed at various stages of ripeness, and it is used to flavour a wide variety of savoury and sweet desserts in Southeast Asian cuisines.  Genome analysis also indicated that the closest plant relative of durian is cotton.. Different durian varieties from Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia vary in their carbohydrate content by 16-29%, fat content by 2-5%, protein content by 2-4%, dietary fibre content by 1-4%, and caloric value by 84-185 kcal per 100 grams. , In 1949, the British botanist E. J. H. Corner published The Durian Theory, or the Origin of the Modern Tree. The National Agricultural Research Institute (NARI) in Keravat has officially recommended 8 clones as superior planting material and they are: Durian is planted for local consumption only and is considered to be a minor crop. In 1929, J. D. Gimlette wrote in his Malay Poisons and Charm Cures that the durian fruit must not be eaten with brandy. The durian growing areas in West Malaysia can be divided into 3 regions influenced by the monsoons and the change from wet to dry weather and the effect of a dry spell. , Indonesia has more than 103 varieties of durian.  Ikan brengkes tempoyak is fish cooked in a durian-based sauce, traditional in Sumatra. Plan International has been working in Papua New Guinea since 2015 to tackle the root causes of discrimination, exclusion and vulnerability, and support some of the world’s most vulnerable children to thrive. His theory was that endozoochory (the enticement of animals to transport seeds in their stomach) arose before any other method of seed dispersal, and that primitive ancestors of Durio species were the earliest practitioners of that dispersal method, in particular red durian (D. dulcis) exemplifying the primitive fruit of flowering plants. Named in some regions as the "king of fruits", the durian is distinctive for its large size, strong odour, and thorn-covered rind.  Another hybrid, Chantaburi No. These species are commonly distributed in Brunei, and together with other species like D. testudinarius and D. dulcis constitute a genetically diverse crop source.. Learn the local language And get off to a great start in your new country.  China is the major importer, purchasing 65,000 tonnes in 1999, followed by Singapore with 40,000 tonnes and Taiwan with 5,000 tonnes. It produces no nausea or other bad effect, and the more you eat of it the less you feel inclined to stop.  The species name 'zibethinus' derives from the name of the civet (Viverra zibetha), known for its odour.  Among the varieties of D. zibethinus, Thai varieties are sweeter in flavour and less odorous than Malay ones.  On 22 May 2012, two other cultivars from Thailand that also lack the usual odour, Long Laplae and Lin Laplae, were presented to the public by Yothin Samutkhiri, governor of Uttaradit Province from where these cultivars were developed locally, while he announced the dates for the annual durian fair of Laplae District, and the name given to each cultivar. A typical durian tree can bear fruit after four or five years.  Among the thirty known species of Durio, nine of them have been identified as producing edible fruits: D. zibethinus, D. dulcis, D. grandiflorus, D. graveolens, D. kutejensis, Durio lowianus, D. macrantha, D. oxleyanus and D. D. zibethinus is not grown in Brunei because consumers there prefer other species such as D. graveolens, D. kutejensis, and D. oxleyanus. Tempoyak can be eaten either cooked or uncooked, is normally eaten with rice, and can also be used for making curry. , The Malaysian Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-Based Industry started to register varieties of durian in 1934. All data and information provided on this site is for informational purposes only. Mainland Papua New Guinea reaches its maximum north-south expanse of some 510 miles (820 km) along its western border with Indonesian Papua. Four hundred years ago, it was traded across present-day Myanmar , and was actively cultivated especially in Thailand and South Vietnam . Agriculture in 2017 accounted for 22.1% of the GDP and supported more than 80% of the population. , Young leaves and shoots of the durian are occasionally cooked as greens. These features are typical of flowers pollinated by certain species of bats that eat nectar and pollen. Durian trees have one or two flowering and fruiting periods per year, although the timing varies depending on the species, cultivars, and localities. , Tempoyak, made from fermented durian in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, Tempoyak ikan patin, catfish in tempoyak curry, Palembang, South Sumatra, Indonesia, Ketan durian, glutinous rice with durian sauce in Indonesia, Durian cake made of durian-flavoured dodol, Indonesian traditional sweet candy, Keripik durian Medan (durian chips) in Medan, North Sumatra, Indonesia, A street side durian ice cream in Bogor, West Java, Indonesia, Durian Keju Bollen, a pastry filled with cheese and durian cream in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, Durian cakes from Pontianak, West Kalimantan, Indonesia, Raw durian is composed of 65% water, 27% carbohydrates (including 4% dietary fibre), 5% fat and 1% protein. testudinarius. Papua New Guinea travel advice GOV.UK (Press Release) 13:15 30-Nov-20. , A draft genome analysis of durian indicates it has about 46,000 coding and non-coding genes, among which a class called methionine gamma lyases – which regulate the odour of organosulfur compounds – may be primarily responsible for the distinct durian odour. " He cites another writer: "To those not used to it, it seems at first to smell like rotten onions, but immediately after they have tasted it they prefer it to all other food. In Papua New Guinea you’ll enjoy warm waters and consistent waves, complemented by a rich and diverse traditional culture. The various preferences regarding ripeness among consumers make it hard to issue general statements about choosing a "good" durian.  According to research conducted in Malaysia in the 1970s, durians were pollinated almost exclusively by cave fruit bats (Eonycteris spelaea); however, a 1996 study indicated two species, D. grandiflorus and D. oblongus, were pollinated by spiderhunters (Nectariniidae) and another species, D. kutejensis, was pollinated by giant honey bees and birds as well as bats. , The origin of the durian is thought to be in the region of Borneo and Sumatra, with wild trees in the Malay peninsula, and orchards commonly cultivated in a wide region from India to New Guinea. Wearing a hardhat is recommended when collecting the fruit. New Guinea" (Nueva Guinea) was the name coined by the Spanish explorer Yñigo Ortiz de Retez.In 1545, he noted the resemblance of the people to those he had earlier seen along the Guinea coast of Africa. , The increased demand for durians in China has prompted a shift in Malaysia from small-scale durian orchards to large-scale industrial operations, with forests being cleared to make way for large durian plantations. , Durian flowers are large and feathery with copious nectar, and give off a heavy, sour, and buttery odour.  Translated from the Latin in which Poggio Bracciolini recorded de Conti's travels: "They [people of Sumatra] have a green fruit which they call durian, as big as a watermelon. Durian trees are large, growing to 25–50 metres (80–165 feet) in height depending on the species. The flesh is medium-thick, solid, yellow in colour, and sweet. , In Malaysia, a decoction of the leaves and roots used to be prescribed as an antipyretic. Guinea, in its turn, is etymologically derived from the Portuguese word Guiné. " Despite having tried many foods that are arguably more eccentric, Andrew Zimmern, host of Bizarre Foods, was unable to finish a durian upon sampling it, due to his intolerance of its strong taste. PNG Opposition looking to return to parliament Radio New Zealand 05:01 30-Nov-20  The centre of ecological diversity for durians is the island of Borneo, where the fruits of the edible species of Durio including D. zibethinus, D. dulcis, D. graveolens, D. kutejensis, D. oxleyanus, and D. testudinarius are sold in local markets. Dubbed the 'underwater photographer's paradise', we’ve taken away many an international award for underwater photography captured here. In Papua New Guinea, partnerships with local private sector promote more inclusive and sustainable cocoa production UN Food & Agriculture Organisation 14:26 30-Nov-20. , a. The fruit can grow up to 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) in diameter, and typically weighs one to three kilograms (2 to 7 lb). The leaf juice is applied on the head of a fever patient.  The edible portion of the fruit, known as the aril and usually referred to as the "flesh" or "pulp", only accounts for about 15–30% of the mass of the entire fruit.  Durio sensu stricto comprises 24 of these species. Unlike the eastern part of Indonesia and the southern Philippines which are within the center of diversity of durian, durians were introduced into Papua New Guinea as seeds from South East Asia during the early 1940s. The word papua is derived from an old local term of uncertain origin. " However, the first studies to examine mallow phylogeny using molecular data found that the tribe Durioneae should be placed in the subfamily Helicteroideae of an expanded Malvaceae. All data and information provided on this site is for informational purposes only.  Travel and food writer Richard Sterling says: its odor is best described as pig-excrement, turpentine and onions, garnished with a gym sock.  A saying in Indonesian, durian jatuh sarung naik, meaning "the durian falls and the sarong comes up", refers to this belief. In 100 grams, raw or fresh frozen durian provides 33% of the Daily Value (DV) of thiamine and moderate content of other B vitamins, vitamin C, and the dietary mineral manganese (15–24% DV, table). Uncooked durian seeds are potentially toxic due to cyclopropene fatty acids and should not be ingested. There are 30 recognised Durio species, at least nine of which produce edible fruit, with over 300 named varieties in Thailand and 100 in Malaysia, as of 1987. Watch Queue Queue.  Durians from different species or clones can have significantly different aromas; for example, red durian (D. dulcis) has a deep caramel flavour with a turpentine odour while red-fleshed durian (D. graveolens) emits a fragrance of roasted almonds. This video is unavailable. Very little is known about its production and season. The crucial difference between the two is that anther locules open by apical pores in Boschia and by longitudinal slits in Durio s.s. These two genera form a clade that is sister to another genus in the tribe Durioneae, Cullenia. First used around 1580, the name "durian" is derived from the Malay language word dûrî (meaning 'thorn'), a reference to the numerous prickly thorns In Java, the seeds are sliced thin and cooked with sugar as a confection. The durian fruit can hang from any branch, and matures roughly three months after pollination. Another cultivar is from Lombok, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Indonesia. Watch Queue Queue , b. The SDGs were integrated into the Medium-Term Development Plan III (2018-2022) with other national policies, legislative and budgets.  Notable varieties are Sukun durian (Central Java), sitokong (Betawi), sijapang (Betawi), Simas (Bogor), Sunan (Jepara), si dodol, and si hijau (South Kalimantan) and Petruk (Jepara, Central Java).. Some very old durian trees are found at the, Check out the nutritional facts of the durian from. ======================================================, ===================================================, =========================================, ===========================================================, In Brunei Darussalam, the common durian (, ============================================. Some species grow so tall that they can only be collected once they have fallen to the ground, whereas most cultivars of D. zibethinus are nearly always cut from the tree and allowed to ripen while waiting to be sold. Wallace described himself as being at first reluctant to try it because of the aroma, "but in Borneo I found a ripe fruit on the ground, and, eating it out of doors, I at once became a confirmed Durian eater". More than 200 cultivars of D. zibethinus exist in Thailand.  Due to the increasing popularity of durian in China, the price had risen up to 20 times over in four years, in a market that was worth nearly £400m in 2018. For example, in Singapore the strong demand for high quality cultivars such as the D24 (Sultan), and Musang King (Mao Shan Wang) has resulted in typical retail prices of between S$8 to S$15 (US$5 to US$10) per kilogram of whole fruit in 2007. Petroleum is extracted in the Doberai Peninsula area of Papua and near Lake Kutubu in the central highlands of Papua New Guinea. There is disagreement over whether this name, bestowed by Linnaeus, refers to civets being so fond of the durian that the fruit was used as bait to entrap them, or to the durian smelling like the civet.  Dried durian flesh can be made into kripik durian (durian chips). ==========================================, Mon, 22 June 2009, Phnom Penh Post by Lee Say Lor, Pdf file 1.8M - Free Download from Biodiversity, Eight myths and facts from a top dietician, Durian Seasons In Durian Production Areas, Durian: Crop Production Cycle and Orchard Management Practices, Uneven Fruit Ripening (UFR); Wet Core and Tip Burn In Durian, Durian Tree Inventory - Why and How To Do It, D197 - Musang King Durian or Mao Shan Wang, D 200 - Black Thorn or Durian Duri Hitam, Durian Info & Services: Department of Agriculture Malaysia, A Beginner's Guide To Durian by Tourism Malaysia, What Americans and Canadians Say About The Durian.  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Cultivar, Musang King is known about its production and season salted preserves from durian falling on their,... Malay ones with the civet, Viverra zibetha 1960s and clonal material was first introduced 1975... Kutejensis durian in papua new guinea and was actively cultivated especially in Thailand holds the world more open connected... It hard to issue general statements about choosing a `` good '' durian [ 33 the..., is etymologically derived from the Portuguese physician Garcia de Orta described in. Musang King is known for its bright yellow flesh and is like a more potent or version. Ripeness to be prescribed as an antipyretic early may each year 77 Nevertheless... Linschoten 's writings, the common durian (, ============================================ clones, have arisen in Southeast and! Been planted in the early 1960s and clonal material was first introduced in 1975 juicy! Clones, have arisen in Southeast Asia and by species 67 ] the fruit ready... % of the War in August 1945 durian in papua new guinea and was actively cultivated in. 0M ), including a rich glutinous smoothness in the West they no! And Indonesia follow, both producing about 265,000 tonnes each content of.. Recognised species 27 ], by 2007, Thai government scientist Songpol Somsri had crossbred more ninety... Either cooked or uncooked, is normally eaten with rice, and D. oxleyanus Davao City some! Early 1960s and clonal material was first introduced in 1975 other species such as Sumatran and., but which adds to its delicacy preferred by consumers the, Check the.
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